Scientists have warned that the agreement is not enough to avoid catastrophic global warming, given that countries` commitments to reduce carbon emissions will not be enough to meet temperature targets. Other criticisms focus on the agreement`s ability to cope with climate change-related losses in the most vulnerable countries, such as most African countries, many South Asian countries, and several countries in South and Central America. The agreement formally entered into force on 4 November 2016. several days before COP22 and was ratified by 169 countries (including the European Union 28), which account for 87.75% of emissions. . . .